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How to Make a Fantasy Character Name

[A note to my subscribers: this post was originally published in October, but wordpress hiccuped and the post was down within the day. Some of you will remember it and some of you will not. I just now made this re-post.]

Usually, fantasy and science fiction names come easily to me. But for some reason my current WIP does not want anything in it named. I was having a headache of a time, so I decided to do a little research. Maybe you aren’t having as bad a time as I was – you just need a fantasy character named, without the writer’s-naming-block. Well, you’re in luck. Fantasy name generators are a half-penny a dozen on the internet. Just google search, pull up a site, press “generate” until you find something you don’t hate, and presto, fantasy name. Go on. What are you standing around for?

Still here? Good. That means you understand enough to know no generator can possibly supply a quality name, specific and tailored and an enrichment to the rest of your fantasy world. You know a generator can not supply originality or the specific need of your story. Yay!

  • Quick: What NOT to Do

I found this humorous piece while researching. In short, it gives a good run-down of how not to make a fantasy name. Since humor does every so much better a job at explaining things (especially why things are wrong), I’ll just link. How Not to Make a Fantasy Name. It’s a quick read.

  • Methods of Creation

I found many authors sharing their method of playing with words and sounds in order to come up with something they liked. I suppose this is what I always did before; it just came naturally to throw together sounds. Lots of writers look through baby name sites and then manipulate a name they like. One author said she would take a word, and then change it one letter at a time until she had what she wanted. At first glance just playing with sounds doesn’t sound like a good method, but don’t dismiss it too soon. This mainly relies on your ability to decide on a name that “feels right.” Which comes to my next topic. . .

  • Connotations of Sounds

What makes a name “feel right”? It’s not psychic. It’s not random. Sounds have connotations around them. Yes, this is scientific. Think about softer sounds versus harder sounds. S and L versus the hard G and K, for example. When a word, especially a name, sounds like what it means, that’s perfect. So play with sounds. . . but know what you’re doing when you play with them. If you have the time – and I highly recommend you make quite a bit of time if you don’t have it – explore the site at http://www.trismegistos.com/MagicalLetterPage/, which deals extensively with this subject.

  • Fitting in the Language

Names are part of a language. Names from the same country are going to come from the same language. Grithinlot and Tien are different fundamentally because they do not sound like they come from the same language. Brandon Sanderson, an author of fantasy, detailed the way he came up with different languages in one of his novels, and I highly recommend the source – anything I say would probably be repeating him. http://www.brandonsanderson.com/book/Elantris/page/35/Creating-the-Languages-of-Elantris. Why do you need to think about an entire language when all you want are character names? Well, what else will you need to be naming? Cities? Animals? Foods? Maybe you need a magical phrase. All words are part of a language, and you can’t ignore that while worldbuilding.

As mentioned earlier, many writers have their own methods for giving their fantasy characters names. What is your method? What is one fantasy name you particularly like? What is your favorite fantasy name that you created?

Testing a Character for Mary Sue-ism and What to Do About It

What is a Mary Sue?
There are several definitions of a Mary Sue. Usually a character that makes people say, “Mary Sue!” has some combination of the follow characterizations:

  • A Character Based Off Yourself

Named after you, working at the job you wish you had, possessing all your good qualities, dressing, thinking, and acting like you, this is the beginner’s Mary Sue. When I first started writing as a teen all my protagonists were copies – maybe idealized copies, but still copies – of me. Trust me, this is a bad idea. You will get too attached to your character, not allow them to grow and 3D-ize naturally, and will squish the story to fit the character, instead of the other way around.

  • A Perfect, Unbeatable, Fantastic Character

She is gorgeous. She will whip anyone in a fight. She can not lose. She gets all the guys she wants. If she’s got a fault it something like “a little clumsy when not on the battlefield.”  She’s a Mary Sue. These are the characters that annoy people. Unfortunately, these Sues also tend to masquerade as Really Cool characters. And it’s really temping to make your favorite character Really Cool.

  • A Character With Cliche Qualities, Backstory, or Plot Points

She was abandoned by her parents, has strange eyes that see into your soul, and will die in her lovers arms to be brought back to life at the Crucial Moment. If you’re wondering how you could possibly write a character this terrible. . . well, maybe not that terrible. But letting “little” cliche attributes pile up is easier than you think, especially if you are not well-versed in cliches.

Despite the female name, Mary Sues do not have to be girls. Guys can have the qualities too. Now, whether you call a male Mary Sue a Gary Stu or Murray Sue or Marty Stew is subject to some debate. For the sake of simplicity, however, I will only use “she” in this post. Substitute “he/she/it” in your mind.

A Little History

Originally, Mary Sues referred to original fanfiction characters. Even more originally, it referred to original Star Trek fanfiction characters. A short story mocking the abundance of young, perfect, attention-stealing insert characters coined the term. It is viewable here: http://www.fortunecity.com/rivendell/dark/1000/marysue.htm The term “Mary Sue” has lost a lot of its meaning in fanfiction due to general overuse and definition fuzziness, but plain fiction writers have happily adopted the term.

How can I tell if one of my characters is a Mary Sue?

Well, the easy way is to try a Mary Sue test on the character. Now, in no way is a simple yes/no test perfect, but I’ve found such tests very useful. I’ve compiled links to the tests I’ve found most useful. They are intended for straight fiction characters (many tests you find will be intended for fanficiton characters).

  • The Original Mary Sue Test for Fiction Characters

http://www.ponylandpress.com/ms-test.html

[Note: the original original Mary Sue test which the above test was based off of was for fanfiction characters.]

  • The Exhaustive, Recommended Test [Slight language and references to sexuality. For a PG to PG-13 audience.]

http://www.springhole.net/writing/marysue.htm

[Note: on the same site is a Mary Sue test for created races.]

  • A Shorter Test

http://www.katfeete.net/writing/marysue.html

[Note: the “summary” after the test is humorously unreliable, but all the points are something to think about.]

The Mary Sue of Stargate: Atlantis

I just realized why Teyla is my least favorite character on my favorite show. She's an orphan, the leader of her people, a keen warrioress, partially Wraith, and the only new thing she struggles to understand is Earth culture. No wonder she annoys me.

Oh dear. How do I fix my Mary Sue?

Fixing Mary Sues isn’t too hard, as long as you’re not too attached. What exactly you need to do to fix your Mary Sue depends on what is wrong. But first, let me define “fixing.” I do not mean going, “OK, maybe I can cut that out,” and de-checking boxes on a Mary Sue test until you are down to a reasonable score. I mean taking a grand look at your character, picking up the worst problems one at a time, and figuring out what should be there instead.

  • Copy of You

So, she’s actually you, huh? Here’s a quick tip: change her (or his) name. I mentioned above that all my first protagonists were coppies of me. Well, one of those protagonists has since been rewritten (along with her accompanying story line) into someone else entirely who can carry a novel on her shoulders. The first step was to change her name. Then figure out how much of your storyline was pandering to the fact she’s you – and cut it.  Leave her alone for a few months. Come back and figure out who she really is.

  • Backstory

Backstory is perhaps the easiest to fix, and it’s even easier to fix if you’ve yet to start writing (this is why you test for Mary Sues in the development stage). Just. . . change their personal story. If you’ve already begun writing, you may need to add or delete scenes, but trust me, it’s for the better of your novel. This only gets tricky if you have a bad backstory giving a character their motive or something for integral to the story. In this case it’s back to the drawing board: your character is underdeveloped. Decide what is really causing Mary Sue to act.

  • Character Traits

Ditch the purple eyes and raven hair and the out-of-time-and-place clothing. Make sure she has a real character flaw – or three or five. Realize she is not going to stay calm and collected no matter what, and certainly not when everyone else is panicking. Take a look at your character arc: how has she changed by The End? Or did you make her perfect at the beginning and leave no room for development?

  • Cliche Development

If you just realized that Mary Sue easily switches from being an apothecary to leading the rebel army, if Mary Sue never gets honestly beaten or makes a mistake (without a reasonable excuse), if Mary Sue develops amnesia, and becomes royalty. . . hopefully you’re only outlining. 🙂 Take bad plot points out and figure out a better way to get from the A before the point and the B after the point. Add good plot points (your character receiving the consequences for being a smart alec, for example). Think carefully about realism, since many Mary Sue plot point borderline the fantastic.

If you find that a character is just too deep a Mary Sue to keep alive and just can’t make it in your story, that’s OK. Sometimes its easier to start over from the beginning rather than try to revise the unrevisable. Just last year I scrapped a complete draft and started over from the beginning. It was that bad.

Things To Remember So You Don’t Huff And Ignore Everything I Just Said:
~Those tests are for symptom of the disease. Not every point is to be avoided like a hurricane; Mary Sue characteristics – when used with restraint – can be done well. See below.
~Yes, it is possible for you to see Mary Sue qualities in a character from your favorite or a classic book. If you are a really, really good writer, you can pull off a great story with a Mary Sue. And I mean J. K. Rowling good (try doing a Mary Sue test for Harry Potter).
~Every writer has made a Mary Sue in their day. You will too at some point. You are not J. K. Rowling. If you think you are, there’s a name for that psychiatric condition.

This is the first post in a serious on characters. You see, in my planning for NaNoWriMo, I’m fleshing out my main and supporting characters. So it’s all in self-interest.  May you never write another Mary Sue again! (I wish the same for myself.)

How to Write a Powerful Hookline

The hookline will be the first thing anyone ever hears about your novel. Even before the killer first sentence (and you did craft one of those, yes?), the hookline snags a reader. The reader either is reeled in or slips off back into the sea. Agents and editors are flooded with queries. This is your one chance to make an impression. If you fail, your query letter gets chucked in the trash. Scared yet?

A hookline (or logline, if you’re talking about a movie or play) is a one-sentence summary of your novel. It’s goal is to intrigue. A typical hookline set up is, “In [setting], [protagonist] [action – specific plot element] to [goal], but [protagonist] [counterforce or motive],” but there is no hard and fast setup. Still, most of those elements are included in every hookline.

The Protagonist and the Antagonist

First, forget your characters’ names. Andrew Fillmore or Martha Anderson say nothing about the character, but the “chipper, unemployed trapeze artist” or “retired Navy officer” does. Capture people with who your characters are, and they will want to know names.

Second – and you can keep this in mind for all nouns in your hookline – forget everything you’ve been told about cutting adjectives. At least while you’re writing a hookline. You only have one sentence, and while it must be tiny, it should not be skin and bones. Don’t be superfluous and give each noun an adjective – or two, but do say that the ranch your widow must restore is dilapidated.

You will not need to mention more than two or three characters or groups of characters. The main speaker and their team or close connection, and the antagonist and their team or close connection are all who need to be mentioned. For example, the logline for The Magnificent Seven could read:

A professional gunslinger (protagonist) organizes a unique posse (protagonist’s team or group) that struggles to save a Mexican town from a murderous group of banditos (antagonist group).

A cyber-friend on a forum I frequent is writing a novel with this hookline:

A genius orphan (protagonist) races to find a cure for his brain-damaged sister (protagonist’s close connection) before her makeshift life support system fails (antagonist – time).

Notice in the above hookline, the antagonist is not a person. While a thinking, calculating being is usually used as the bad guy, the antagonist can easily be a stressful job, time, or illness.

The Goal or End Result

Both the protagonist and the antagonist have these. The protagonist’s goal absolutely must be stated, but the antagonist’s goal may be implied. If the antagonist is not a person, then it can not have a goal, but it most certainly has an end result.

A professional gunslinger organizes a unique posse that struggles to save (protagonist goal) a Mexican town from a murderous group of banditos (implied antagonist goal – to keep the town).

A genius orphan races to find a cure (protagonist goal) for his brain-damaged sister before her makeshift life support system fails (antagonist end result).

The Setting

The setting is both the time period and the place of the novel. If the novel takes place in a contemporary setting, there is no need to give a time. The contemporary setting is assumed. But if your novel is historical fiction or takes place in the future, you need to make that clear.

Do the same you did for names for places. Unless the place is Los Angeles or the Rockies or some other place that does not need an explanation, a “bustling suburb” is better than Georgetown, and “newly colonized planet” is better than “Ithos-3.” For a novel with a complex world (such as a fantasy or science fiction novel), the setting may need an entire clause.

A professional gunslinger (setting keyword – time) organizes a unique posse that struggles to save a Mexican town (setting – place) from a murderous group of banditos.

The setting may be implied by keywords associated with that time or place, as it is with “professional gunslinger.” By the time we get to “posse” we know this is a western and now have a time frame of the events.

In a future where criminals are arrested before the crime occurs (setting – time), a despondent cop struggles on the lam (setting – place) to prove his innocence for a murder he has not yet committed.

This logline for Minority Report illustrates how a science fiction novel carries its setting. It devotes the entire first clause to a) telling us this novel takes place in the future, and b) explaining the part of the world that has the biggest impact on the plot (criminals being arrested before the crime occurs).

Actions

No doubt your hookline will include one or more actions by the protagonist, and maybe even by the antagonist. These actions should be aggressive, not passive. No one wants to read about a passive hero (Or villain, for that matter. How exactly can one be a passive villain anyway?). Make the actions very specific, not general, preferably using actual plot points, and as always, use vibrant verbs and few adverbs.

A professional gunslinger organizes a unique posse (protagonist specific action) that struggles (protagonist evocative action) to save a Mexican town from a murderous group of banditos.

Notice that while “struggles” is not a specific plot point, it nevertheless evokes a strong sense of both physical and mental action, and is offset by the specific action (organizes a unique posse).

A genius orphan races to find a cure (protagonist actions) for his brain-damaged sister before her makeshift life support system fails.

“Races to find a cure” is actually a fairly general action, but if the novel is about the boy trying one thing after another, this more accurately reflects the plot line than just one of those attempts.

Showing Mood

Consider the following two loglines from the same movie.

Transported to a surreal landscape, a young girl kills the first woman she meets, then teams up with three complete strangers to do it again.

After a twister transports a lonely Kansas farm girl to a magical land, she sets out on a dangerous journey to find a wizard with the power to send her home.

Try to echo your novel’s tone. If your novel is comedic, throw a bit of wit in your hookline. If it’s a lighthearted adventure, give it a childish fantastical feel. If it lays bare grim reality, portray the attitude in it. You shouldn’t worry over trying to include your novel’s tone too much, but never, ever, mix moods. (For those of you who are wondering, Wikipedia attributes the first, rather twisted logline of The Wizard of Oz to “Richard Polito of the Marin Independent Journal, who writes humorously sarcastic briefs for the paper’s daily TV listings.”)

I have a weakness for hooklines. It is hard to condense my novel into a single sentence, but it would be extremely useful, not only so I could write a decent query, but so I could have an answer when someone asks me what my novel is about. So far I either mumble, “it’s science fiction,” or I prattle on for three minutes.

Do you have any hooklines for your novel? Any other tips on how to write a hookline?

How to Write an Alien Invasion Novel

In 1898, H. G. Wells struck the match for alien invasion novels with his War of the Worlds.

“I’m writing an alien invasion novel.” You’ll get a few odd smiles, a few confused looks, and maybe a few glazed “whatever” looks. The genre has been suffering under mediocre representations. But you, as a creative and adventuresome fellow who knows how to write, can bring the alien novel back to life! Right? Right?

The Aliens
As a writer, you’ll often hear that your characters are what draw a reader to your story and create the first link between observer and world. This means antagonists as well as protagonists. Whether a well-developed protagonist or antagonist is more important is subject to much debate. For an alien invasion novel, however, the answer is simple: the antagonists. The people who read alien novels look for an are attracted to the aliens. Don’t skimp on this. Even if all the humans see is ships, you would need to develop their thought process to make all their actions cohesive. Most important is the aspect that allows the aliens to be defeated or win.

Motives, Motives, Motives
This is number one, and a swimming pool of cliches. Slaves. Food. Planetary resources. Punishment for being a war-like race (And they aren’t? Who’s attacking who?). Or just some super evil galactic government that can’t stand the thought of sentients not under it’s control. One thing that will hook readers is a unique motive. As part of the premise, the motive must be strong and believable.  Keep in mind that all the alien’s actions during the invasion are governed by the motive.  If the aliens want the planet resources, they’ll take care not to damage the atmosphere and landscape too much. If the aliens want more subjects, they will be more mindful of the civilian lives. With that in mind, you don’t need English-speaking aliens to communicate a motive. Their actions will do just fine.

Technology
What is the alien weaponry? Defense? What type of ships do they possess? Are there any other technological advantages that they have? Your heroes will be fighting this. Just make sure the technology level is smooth: if they have motherships that can vaporize a city, they probably won’t need foot soldiers. If there is a weakness to their technology, it must be realistic. Any aliens attacking Earth have no doubt worked simulations of our attempts to resist.

Methods of Attack
~Alien Raids
Aliens without the power or numbers for an all-out attack can be content with pirating resources in raids. Raids, with presumably less-advanced ships and smaller numbers the enemy, are easier for smaller groups or citizens to defeat (or at least convince not to come back). On the other hand, raids may be preparation for an all out attack, doing reconnaissance of Earth’s population or military abilities or spreading terror.
~Alien Infiltration
Aliens take human form and live among us, slowly taking higher and higher levels within our society until they affectively rule the world, or can smother resistance to a true invasion. This is interesting because aliens could be running nations and no one would know.  To bring the aliens down, the protagonist must first discover them, and take on sleuthing duties to route expose them.  Easily a thriller in the mystery/spy department.

The Independence Day aliens show you how it's done.

~All-Out Attack
The aliens come. The aliens attack. Earth is crumbling. This is for the aliens who are to big and bad and don’t have to bother with infiltration or minor attacks. Also the favorite method of exterminators. Presumably, the aliens know what they’re doing, and the only hope of defeating them is in an odd weapon. Ala the common cold be deadly to Martians (or macs being compatible with alien motherships, but I had to give a good example first). The defeat must be different, reasonable, and unexpected. I find this version the most exciting, but that may just be me.

Reaction and Resistance
Since, most likely, your story will be from the humans’ point of view, their reaction are most of the story. Being a stubborn bunch, most will fight back (before or after peace negotiations fail). But there will be the few that see Earth as the losing side and throw their lot with the aliens.
Military Resistance is likely to be wiped out, but then, we could always come up with some clever incision the aliens were not prepared for. More common is an innovative defeat involving brains over brawn or natural aspects of Earth being deadly to the aliens.

Defeat or Triumph?
By far, most alien invasion novels end with Earth in triumph. But not all. There are three main endings for the alien invasion novel: a) Earth wins, b) peace is negotiated, or c) aliens win and Earth is left on bent knee. . . at least until next time.
If Earth wins, you must decide how. Usually any strict military action gets crushed (or vaporized, as the case may be) and innovative action is used for the actual defeat, if indeed human action is the alien downfall.
If peace is negotiated, the natural communication problem must be solved, preferably with a more interesting fix than “They watched our TV shows” (Wouldn’t they all be brain dead then?) or “Telepathy!” (Getting close to magic, even if it is acceptable soft sci-fi).
If the aliens win, you need to make sure readers don’t throw your own book at you. There must be a silver lining: plans for the future, the aliens aren’t any worse masters than any other government, or something else that saves the ending. We tend to want the guy most like ourselves to win, or at least be okay. If you defy this, it had better be so interesting readers are to busy thinking about it to aim properly at you.

Variations
~Beneficial Alien Invasion/Aliens are the Good Guys
What if the invasion was for the benefit of man kind? What if Earth had been provocative, and the aliens were more good guys than bad? Since our natural tendency is to route for the humans (after all, they are the ones we understand and can sympathize with best), this opens some interesting opportunities for dilemmas. What side does the protagonist take, and how does he justify it? What if both sides think they are in the right?

Harry Turtledove's Worldwar series is an example of alternate history alien invasion.

~Alternate HistoryHarry Turtledove’s Worldwar Series is an example of placing an alien invasion in the past.
Most aliens novels take place in the present – whenever the “present” was when the novel was written, for this simple reason that the readers get hit with the creepy feeling of possibility and “w. But this is hardly a hard-and-fast rule. Giving an aliens invasion a historical setting takes the usual work and research of a historical novel, but the possibilities are enticing. (Personally, I think aliens versus Napoleon could be cool.) Ancient cultures are fascinating, aliens are fascinating, and the combination of the two is at least interesting.

I like to think about the “what ifs” of an aliens invasion. I don’t know whether or not I’ll write an alien invasion novels someday, but all novels have their “what-if” stage. Hopefully this post will start a “what-if” chain in your mind as well! Have you ever written an alien invasion novel or story? Is there anything you like to add? What aspect of an alien invasion novel do you find most important?

How Many Races Should You Have?

I seem to be getting inspiration from people’s questions a lot lately.  A little over a week ago, Thrawn asked a question on the Holy Worlds Sci-Fi forums:

How many groups of aliens do you think is appropriate and easy to handle?
~Thrawn

While I responded on the thread, I wanted to elaborate. Like many answers, the short version is “It depends.” As with all answers, the long version is more interesting. While I am speaking in science fiction terms, this is all very relevant to fantasy as well.

From what I have found, there are three main development/involvement levels for races (or, “groups of aliens,” if you prefer). The number of groups you may handle depends on the level of development and involvement, since these affect how much time and effort is needed.

Fully Developed Races
Main characters and sub-main characters are part of fully developed races (with a few plot exceptions – such as the main character is the only surviving member of the race). These are races where everything is developed: history, culture, clothing, food, mindset, factions, schooling, religion, technology, architecture, etc. etc. etc.

Semi-Developed Races
Usually secondary characters belong to somewhat developed races. Just as secondary characters play a minor role, the development is less. Things like appearance, clothing, and mindset are given, but all other aspects of development are created only as it is needed: if the character is part of a faction, then that faction and how it is different from the norm is developed. You would only develop food if they ate a meal. If the main characters were passing through the race’s territory, architecture would need to be developed.

Fully developed and somewhat developed races may have a political role in the story. Also, one or more planets may be fully developed.

Existing Races
Some secondary characters and background characters belong to existing races. Nothing more is developed than the race’s home planet or territory’s location, any quirks the race has, the race’s appearance, the race’s means of communications, and possibly clothing. Usually not even all of that is developed.

Fine. How many of each, exactly?
No exactly. How many people groups you can handle involves the story line, your comfort level, and the level of the races. If you need more races for the galaxy to feel less empty, add a half-dozen existing races. Throw them around interplanetary stations. Mention passing their territory or planet. Most of us could develop a dozen existing races without a problem.

For fully developed races I can usually only handle about three at most. But then, my novels are short for the sci-fi genre. If I had room, perhaps I could develop more if my story line called for it.

Key phrase: if the story line calls for it. Don’t over develop a race just because it’s there. You can become stressed thinking you have to make every race fully or even semi developed. On the other hand, don’t worry about overdeveloping: you could always use the development unmentioned in the story for another race in another story. Also, for a semi-developed race, over development might help you “get a feel” for the race, as a friend pointed out.

Take your pick as to which half of the above paragraph you are going to listen to.

An Interesting Note
There have been studies showing that the human brain can only completely manage four other people at a time at top capacity. The article I heard was referencing how many generals leaders have historically handled effectively. About a year ago, I noticed an interesting thing: while I could make smooth and even conversations between four characters, conversations fell apart when I used five. Someone got left in the sidelines. What’s more, I never was able to learn how to make my five characters have a smooth conversation, even with time and plenty of practice. My theory is that I’m managing four “people,” and as the study showed, I can’t handle five at 100% effectiveness. It’s just a theory – and I’d love to hear if this is true for you as well as me – but it appears sound as I’ve applied it to other things.

And races are “other things.” I would recommend no more than four fully developed races.

How do you tell what level a race should be?
You can look at the level of the characters in that race and judge from there. But my personal route is to write in a race at a lower level, and wait to see if I need more development. If I’m writing and realize I really, really, need to have some standard wardrobes for different classes in a race, I’ll pause, pull out pretty colored pencils, and create apparel. I am very obviously a panster.

How many groups of aliens or races do you handle in one story? From what I have said, which development and involvement levels do these races have?

How long should a chapter be in a novel?

It’s a confusing thought. Your first draft may have chapters of radically different lengths, or no chapters at all. When you come back for a second draft, you have to make sure your chapters are the right length! But just how long should a chapter in a novel be?

What’s normal?
Strictly speaking, 10 to 17 pages is normal. But this “norm” is flexible (yes, another “it depends” answer) and based off the following principles:

In One Sitting
Granted, the Utterly Fantastic Novel of the Century would probably have readers up all night. But a more realistic idea has readers going chapter by chapter. Try to make your chapters good bight-sized lengths, small enough to read in one setting but long enough to contain enough interesting information and events to last a day. (If you’re writing a thriller, of course, you can ignore this. Aim for the page-turning effect.)

Think Complete
While some novels thrive on the cliffhanger chapter ending, a general rule of thumb is to make each chapter a mini-story. Just like the entire novel, an ideal chapter would adhere to a mini-three act structure with a beginning, middle, climax, and resolution. I will post more on the completeness of a chapter at a later date. For now, remember that if you come to a point where there is a “complete” feeling to the recent events, that is a good place to stick a chapter break. This also gives your readers a tiny sense of satisfaction at having completed their bight-sized reading amount.

Genre Differences
Just like how the length of a novel is affected by the genre, the length of a chapter is affected. History, fantasy, and science fiction novels are usually longer because they need more room to create a world. Thrillers and some types of mysteries are shorter because they are compact to create tension. The same applies to the individual chapters. Some fantasy chapters will reach 20 pages. Some thrillers have chapters only 2 or three pages long.

Flip Open a Favorite
Like many writing questions, this can be answered by grabbing a favorite novel (for this case, preferably the same genre).  Why a favorite novel?  Well, obviously you enjoyed it.  And, if no one else, you want your novel to please yourself.  So take a look at how many pages a few of your favorite novels have and divide that number by how many chapters each has.  That’s the average page length of a chapter.  Aim for it.

How long are your chapters? What guidelines do you follow to break your novels up?

How to write Fight Scenes: Useful Sites

A while back (and midway through a spyfy) I realized I didn’t know how to write fight scenes.  So I googled it.  Problem is, apparently everyone posts what everyone knows about fight scenes.  I ate page after page of redundant material until I had found enough unique sites to know my stuff.  Do not worry, this is not going to be yet another post on what everyone knows about fight scenes.  Other people have written enough on how to write fight scenes that I can give you a nice triplet of links and sleep at night knowing I’ve helped you bloody your characters.  Take the time to read through these; it can only improve your fighting skill.  Er, writing fighting skill.

How to Write a Fight Scene
After I read this, I thought, “I need to rewrite every fight scene I’ve ever written.”  After a friend read this (on my recommendation), she said, “I feel like rewriting every fight scene I’ve ever done.”  Essentially the same thing. 😉  I believe you will feel the same way too.  The author leads you through a fight scene step by step in the one of the more engaging voices I have read in an article.

Fight Scenes 101
An entire (small) site devoted to fight scenes.  Thumbs up.  The sections are titled Location, Weapons, Language, Writing, Big Odds, Big Battles, Other Types of Action, and Weapons Database, which gives you a good idea of the contents.

Does Your Fight Scene Pack a Punch?
Just an article, but it packs a punch.  Pun unintended.  This article focuses on two major things:  how to keep your fight scenes from looking like a choreographer’s notebook (For the record, mine did.) and how to give your fight scene emotional punch.  After all, readers aren’t going to worry about that broken nose if there is no emotion involved.

Pretty much every other article you’ll find parrots what is covered in these three sites.  ‘Tis a pity. I could rant about regurgitation articles forever (or at least a paragraph). Instead. . . Enough experts. What do you have to say about writing fight scenes? Anything to add?

How to Create Characters for a Novel

Characters are the first thing that pull us in to a novel. We can like and feel attached to characters with tiny roles or to characters who are villains. It all depends on how well they are developed. This is my monster post on how to create characters for a novel. First, a little terminology:

 

Character Ranks
~Main Character(s)
The novel is about the main character, focusing on them, telling their story. The main characters play the largest role, and are usually the good guys.
~Sub-Main Characters
Not all novels have sub-main characters. In fact, I think I coined this term on my own. I got tired of being unable to identify my characters who were not the main characters, but were in almost every scene. Hence the term sub-main characters. They’re somewhere in between main and secondary character status.
~Secondary Characters
Characters with smaller roles are secondary characters. Their roles can range from one or three scenes to being part of every major event. How big their roles is affects how much development they have. They may or may not be named or described or have their own history and relationships.
~Background Characters
Characters who’s only purpose is too supply setting and background. Then man sitting by the window when the main characters walk into a restaurant. The minion guards. They have no names, and only have token lines, if any lines at all.

Main and sub-main characters need full profiles. Secondary actors with reoccurring roles may need full profiles as well. But secondary characters who are only in one or three scenes do not need full profiles (or may not need profiles at all, if they are minor enough not to be named), and background characters do not need profiles, period.

 

Name
I don’t really need to talk about how important a name is, do I? The real question is: how do I pick names for my characters? I could write an entire post on naming, but I’ll try to keep this short.

Sometimes, when you already know the appearance of a character, you can say “He looks like a Caleb,” or “She reminds me of my friend Hannah.” This is an easy way to go. There is also the ever-classic naming characters for the people who inspired them.

A common method is to search baby-naming sites for meanings that are relevant to your characters. Many people do not know the meanings to names, but that doesn’t stop this from being an easy method. Plus, anyone who does know the meaning to the names you choose will be pleased to see the connection.

If you need wild, exotic, or futuristic names, just play with letters. You can pick regular names and play switcheroo or replacement with the syllables or letters. I like to look at the keyboard and pick out letters that I have yet to use and slam them together. Warning: This method results in names such as Xetessa and Jandice.

How does the culture of your world affect characters’ names? Are people given many titles? Do names change throughout life? Is the culture stiff and logical, giving their children one-syllable names? (I swear, I wasn’t thinking about the Vulcans when I typed that.) Is the culture peaceful, and the names soft? Or is the culture war-like, and names filled with hard k’s and g’s? Giving a culture unique naming patterns is actually very crucial to world building. Not only do name patterns give incite in to a culture, but they identify a character’s nationality.

But before you name your main characters Lacy, Lucy, and Lucian, (and plot many long and deep conversations between the three), a word of advice: make all your names unique from one another. How many times have two similar names having a conversation or a fight confounded you? Pay attention to the beginning letters, the ending syllables, the number of syllables. Vary them all. I was once told to never give two characters in the same novel names that start with the same letter. This is obviously a fanatical position, but it does fix the problem. Of course, if you want to give two characters similar names for plot purposes, go ahead and ignore everything I just said.

~The first step in creating a character profile: write down their name!

 

Appearance
The appearance of characters affects readers’ (or audiences’, if you’re talking about cinema) perception of them. If a man is dark and squints his eyes, we think of him differently than of a young girl with blond curls. In fact, we may think of the fat girl with blond curls differently than of the fit girl with blond curls.

Some aspects of a character’s looks may have a story behind them: the character dies their hair a wild color because they are rebellious, or the character has a scar from a near-death accident. Characters’ looks can affect the way they act as well. Maybe a character is self-conscious about their height and wears high heels. Similarly, characters’ acts can affect the way they look. Maybe a character is very outgoing and open, consequently wearing their hair free.

Carriage, if you think about it, is an important part of a character’s appearance, and may even tell something about their history. Are they proud, and carry themselves well, or are they quiet, and walk around closed toward everyone else?

Do not forget clothing when describing a character. Clothes tell so much about us; our status, our attitude, what we like, how we think of ourselves, etc. It is no different for your characters. The clothes a character wears can easily affect scenes or actions. A character stuck in the latest fad will not be prepared if they suddenly have to hike their way through a forest.

~Create a picture of your main characters. You can use any medium you like; tangible paper and pencil, or something on the computer. If you want to dress your character, http://www.mvm.com/cs/ had a vast selection of (modern) garb you can place on a 3D model.
~Create “Appearance” sections for your characters’ profiles and list their height, weight, and eye, hair, and skin tone. Also include how they carry themselves, their common apparel, and any unusual or identifying markings.

 

Family/Friends/Mentors
Family, friends, and mentors may or may not play a role in your novel (and if they do, they have their own family, friends, and mentors).  But they have all affected the character in question.  Maybe your character has a strong sense of justice instilled in him from his father.  Maybe your character is  a loner because they never really had friends and have become accustomed to this.  Maybe what starts the whole plot brewing is the death of your character’s beloved mentor.  There are so many ways other characters can affect a character!  Chances are, so or most of your plot is hinged on one character’s relationship to another.

~Draw family trees for your main characters.
~Create “Relationships” sections for your characters’ profiles, and list how your characters are related to each other.

 

History
All characters have history, whether relevant to the main plot or not. Where they lived, who they knew, and what they did can all be very useful – or it can come back to haunt them.

History can also be an extremely useful plot device. We all know what it’s like to write ourselves into a corner. None of the options are realistic. To get the plot moving you need John to refuse the merchant’s help, but why would he does such a thing? Answer: He was once cheated by a merchant. Suddenly, you have a new subplot.

~Create a mini-timeline of your main character’s lives, but only if their history is going to have a significant affect on the novel.
~Create “History” sections for your characters’ profiles. List where they lived (and thus area they are familiar with), who they know (and thus who is already their friend or enemy), and what they’ve done (skill they learned that could be useful, or crimes that can get them hunted).

 

Personality
You probably already know at least part of the personalities of your character. You know how they are on the outside. But what happens inside? Are they internal or external? Are they a daredevil or cautious? What is the breaking point for your character? What causes them the most joy? Do they act the same alone as when with someone? What are their habits? And for each of these answers, why? Is it just their personality, or did external circumstances cause this? Many sites have very handy lists of questions to answer for your characters.

~Fill out a personality test from the point of view of your main character. You’ll be spending a lot of time inside your main character’s head, so you’ll want to know them the best.
~Create “Personality” sections for your characters’ profiles. List at least three (for a minor character) to ten or more (for a major character) adjectives or phrases to describe them, the answers to the questions above, and any other aspects of their personality.

 

Voice

Voice is how a character says something, how big a vocabulary they have, what their speech quirks are. Voice is affected by personality, culture, education, and upbringing. An energetic character will not give every statement a full sentence. A college graduate will not speak the same way as a country boy.

~Create “Voice” sections for your characters’ profiles. Write a paragraph on the way they speak and refer to it when you are editing dialogue.

 

Purpose and Uniqueness
The ever-important purpose. If you don’t have separate purposes worked out for each of your characters, you will eventually have to combine one or more. I can tell you, that is not fun.

So how do you make sure none of your characters are going to need to be combined? Well, pull out your outline. Next to each event, write down what part each character plays in it. Characters who do not have part in enough events for their rank either need to have their roles increased, or their rank decreased. Character’s whose roles could be filled by other characters need to be deleted.

Look at your character personalities and history. Do each of your characters have unique personalities and stories, or is Mary to much like Sue? Don’t let any of your characters be copies of each other, even if one is a woman with black hair and the other is a little blond boy. If you are having trouble making two characters unique, consider allowing one of them to have their roles replaced by other characters.

~Create “Role” sections for your characters’ profiles. List their main scenes and general effect on the plot.

 

Character Arc
This is perhaps the most important aspect of a main, sub-main, or major secondary character.  He must have an arc.  He must change over the course of the novel.  He must learn something, he must decide something, he must become something, otherwise there is no point in reading about him. His arc may be part of the plot: he is afraid to take people in to his care at the beginning of the novel and must overcome this by the end. Or the plot may be all adventure, and the character arcs are not obvious.

Think about what you’ve decided so far for your characters. Their personality, the way they respond. Look at your plot. See how they would each react to the events and the obstacles in their way. No one (and definitely no characters) could go through a good plot without being affected.

~Create “Arc” sections for your main characters’ profiles. List how they are in the beginning of the novel, how they are at the end of the novel, and what happens in between to change that.

 

And that was my monster post to make up for missing Sunday’s post. Do you have anything to add? How do you create characters?

How to Write Steampunk

Some people have fun creating steampunk-styled items. (click photo for full article)

I found a thread on steampunk over on one of my writing forums, and made the mistake of doing the asker’s research. I got intrigued. In an attempt to get it out of my system, I am now writing a post all about steampunk, but more specifically on how to write it.

What is steampunk?
Steampunk follows an alternate history route, asking, “What if the Victorians had more advanced technology using steampower?”  It can be based off real science, and thus be science fiction, or use anything to make a good story, and be fantasy.  Steampunk stories usually take place in the underside of society and have a gritty feel to them, matching the typical wood and brass of the apparatuses around which the stories are woven.

Subgenre Staples
Writing.com has an excellent list on the staples and ploys of steampunk. I highly recommend it as one of the first articles to read on the subject. Now, I don’t want to repeat that list, but I do want to touch a few common themes.

~Exploration
Many steampunk stories involve exploration; whether to the moon, the center of the earth, or the depths of the sea, it is a staple. Stories depicting the future as Victorian’s envisioned it often take this route.
~Flying
Hot air balloons existed, but they were novelties, queer things to be stared at. No jetpacks, no planes, no blimps, no Hindenburgs, and certainly no rockets. But, of course, we’re adding steaming technology to our stories. Maybe Victorians do fly.

Kerem Beyit created this Chinese Terror. (click photo for her site)

~Robots
Whether it’s swarms of spiders or giant robot men or dragons, they’re steam powered and traditionally created by the mad scientist.
~Subversive
Secret societies were not just stuff of conspiracy theorists, and strict Victorian society and etiquette begged to be disregarded. More conflict. And more plot possibilities.
~Tinkering
Since there is always the steam-powered something in steampunk, there is always the tinkerer who creates it. It may be a mad scientist, a wunderkid, or an incredible tired of humanity who wants to get away. They may work in their watch shop, attic, or private island. But somewhere they exist.

Steampower or Clockwork?
Some steampunk doesn’t even involve steampower. Instead, everything is run by clockwork. Instead of having steaming robots, there are robots with wind-up keys out their backs. Everything looks like the inside of a clock. This is a fun alternative, but remember never to make a clockwork rocket.

Science fiction or fantasy?
There is something of an argument about whether steampunk is science fiction or fantasy. My opinion? Both. It depends on whether you are writing “hard” steampunk or “soft” steampunk. Hard steampunk has technologically plausible ideas. Soft steampunk, eh, you can skimp on the science for the sake of story. As you can see, hard steampunk has some serious limits. There is a reason steam got left behind in the course of human events. However, if you are the type of person who likes their stories to be plausible, it is for you. Soft steampunk uses steampower (or clockwork) as a plot device to set mood. Somewhere in between the two are stories that use futuristic technology as Victorians envisioned it.

Researching the Era
Fantasy and science fiction usually require you to create your own world from scratch.  Every single detail must be different and exciting.  Steampunk requires you to research the era.  Every single detail must be correct (unless, of course, you story calls for an altered detail!).  World, decor, food, and clothing are all important when creating a setting, so make sure you research their Victorian equivalent thoroughly. Especially integral to Victorian times are social ideas, class separations, etiquette. I recommend Victoriana.com and Victorian-Era.org as good places to start.

But what if you want to use an era besides Victorian England? Well, England – and even Europe in general – wasn’t the only bit of land around with steam. America, China, Australia, and Africa all had enough contact with Europe to warrant a steampunk setting. This post on The World of a Steampunk Hero is very interesting, and covers some of the major conflict of the time. And we all know conflict makes a story.

Other settings help make a steampunk story unique. Of course, you have to make a way for the steam-power to get to your continent, and you need to research that particular country. Don’t get it wrong!

Everyday Changes
Every steampunk writer endeavors to make not just their plot unique, but their world different from all others. Steampunk is alternate history, and sometimes more than just the inclusion of steam is different. Sometimes higher steam technology is part of the everyday life. Little things like this keep your world separate from all the others. Think about how the Victorians would have responded to these changes.

The Language of Steampunk
Do not write in such a style that would recall in the minds of readers Victorian usage; far from adding culture and flair to a scene, it merely violates common rules of the trade now in place. Not to mention makes you sound like an idiot.

Neither should you use words that were not in use in the aforementioned era. (OK, after practicing that last paragraph, I still have frills in my writing system.) The point is, the phrase “teen angst” did not exist in Victorian times. Actually, neither of those words did, much less the phrase. Avoid this. Mimicking Victorian authors does not help the scene, but using out of era language (especially from the mouths of characters) only breaks the spell of the world.

This is cutie was made by Eos for Pullip. (click for flickr stream and more information)

Now here’s a do: write normally. Don’t be overly concerned about language just because I pointed out two common mistakes. If you accidentally commit one, you can always edit it.

Steampunk is different and strange, just like speculative fiction should be.  It begs to be taken to new heights.  I believe there are many untapped variations just waiting to be discovered! What do you think of steampunk? Do you have any recommendations? Have you ever tried writing it? Any more advice on how to write steampunk?

How to Outline a Novel

Outlines.  You either hate ’em or you love ’em.  Either way, today you are going to get an earful on how to outline a novel. If you are participating in Fix Your Messy Novel that Doesn’t Have a Chance Month, you might want to make a new outline for your Messy Novel of Choice. I say might, because there are cons. But I think there are more pros. Just for yourself.

 

Outline Pros
An outline puts all your thoughts in one place and gives you goals to work toward.  By plotting out your novel beforehand, you can fix plot holes before you even start writing.  Also, while organizing the ideas you have for an outline, you will make sure you have enough information and ideas to take you all the way through the novel.  I find outlines incredibly useful.

Outline Cons
You may feel restricted by an outline or that you can’t capture all your thoughts and put them on paper. Whether or not outlines are for you depends on your personality type.

 

I’ve compiled a list of four major outline methods, in order from least rigorous to most, for your perusal.

Question Setup
Some people just use a Q & A form for outlining. Many sites have a list of questions to help you develop your novel. This outline form is more of a bunch of reminder notes and inspiration than a detailed plan. Still, I find many questionnaires to be useful, especially in the early stages of development.

Site for more information:
http://www.sff.net/people/alicia/artout.htm
A step-by-step guide to a question setup outline.


Three-Act Structure
In most cultures all stories follow a basic, foundational structures, termed three acts.  Act one shows the characters introduced, the setting created, and basic motives shown.    At the end of act one is the inciting incident, the event that change everything and plunges into the actual plot.  During act two, the main characters face progressively greater and riskier challenges to overcome.  Act three begins with the climax, the ultimate showdown between the heroes and the villain.  You fill in the blanks.

Site for more information:
http://www.musik-therapie.at/PederHill/Structure&Plot.htm
The site I where first learned about the three act structure.


Scene-by-Scene
This outline method requires you to have a general idea of the direction of your novel.  Every scene is plotted.  Each scene has a form that looks something like this:
Scene setting:
Characters in this scene:
Scene mood:
Main points:

This is very thorough.  I must say I like this outline method the best, although I lack the patience to complete it. Novels with this type of outline are written scene by scene.

Site for more information:
http://www.suite101.com/content/writing-a-novel-scene-by-scene-a186023
A web page on writing a novel scene by scene and offers some fun visual ways to make a scene by scene outline.


Snowflake Method
The snowflake method was invented by Randy Ingermanson. It’s concept is simple: start small, and then add to that tiny bit and then add to that and add to that, growing the story like a snowflake. The beginning is a logline. The final step before actually writing involves actual phrases occurring in each scene.

Site for more information:
http://www.advancedfictionwriting.com/art/snowflake.php
The founder’s official page on this outline method.


Now that you know different method, here are some common outline forms.  Some forms work better with different outline types or people.  I suggest trying several.

Spontaneous
Spontaneous is when you write anything that comes to mind, quickly, and in spurts.  In other words, all over the paper.

Somewhere-in-Between
I usually use this one.   It’s thought out and in a line, perhaps with side notes, but not in such a rigid, tight order as strict.  This outline form can be twisted in a lot of way to suit your unique needs.

Strict
The regular outline form you are taught in school is used.  Roman numerals and points and subpoints and all that stuff.  Works well with three-act structure and scene-by scene.

 

I hope you find this list and these links useful!  Maybe you will try an outline even if you normally do not use outlines.  If you are an outliner, how do you outline your novels?  Do you use an outline method listed here, or another one?

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